These differences did not impact on achievement as rated by teachers. However, this may simply reflect the economic and educational status of the family, a known strong predictor of educational attainment, rather than indicating that this equipment of itself will assist students in increasing their attainment. Girls were more ready to plan their time and cope with their responsibility in an orderly fashion Harris, Nixon and Rudduck and were more likely than the boys to report reading for pleasure outside school Keys et al Conclusions Generally, students seem to believe that homework is important in assisting them to do well at school. Hong and Milgram suggest that pupils cannot always work in the way they prefer because of physical or parental constraints.

Younger and Warrington and Warrington et al reported that girls were more conscientious with regard to homework and produced work that was neat, well planned and showed evidence of effort. Where homework is open-ended or flexible, eg reading, this could certainly be the case. These differences are likely to be explained by local mediating factors. As pupils get older part-time work becomes an important activity competing with homework. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer – no Kindle device required. Keith and Benson and May and Lynn found that students from Asian backgrounds spent more time on homework than students from other ethnic groups.

There has been some concern that girls in learning to conform to the conventions of school education, handing in work on time and remaining on task have completed excessive amounts of homework in response to school demands.

Competing activities and other learning opportunities Pupils, in undertaking homework, inevitably give up other possible activities and this can cause conflict Black The final chapter considers the future of homework, including interventions to support pupils, and proposes a model providing a framework for thinking about homework.

Pupils’ perspectives on homework

Pupils resented work set above or below their ability, criticised teachers who catered for the lowest common denominator and felt that good teachers individualised homework.


This association was least marked in mathematics and most marked in reading and science. Ma thd the effects of cooperative homework on mathematics achievement taking into account team characteristics. Since the mid-nineteenth century it has been used to supplement the school curriculum, moving in and out of fashion according to the political climate.

homework the evidence by susan hallam

Join our mailing list. For reading, “once a month” homework was associated with a lower attitude rating. However, many feel that it is boring and not always related to the work they are currently doing.

Account Options Sign in. As pupils progressed through school the first of these was cited more frequently, the others less so.

Homework – UCL IOE Press

Keys and Fernandes also reported that time spent on homework by pupils in Years 7 and 9 was a significant predictor of positive attitudes towards school but the amount of variance explained by homewrok spent on homework was very small. MacBeath and Turner established that pupils adopt different patterns of doing homework.

But one study of pupils in the USA at secondary level, which took the pupils’ perspective, suggested that pupils did not necessarily support this idea because being given assignments which were different from the rest of the class tended to have a negative impact on self-esteem Nelson et al A number of studies have commented on gender differences in relation to homework. Homework and attitudes towards school and particular subjects There is evidence that there are positive relationships between attitudes towards homework and positive attitudes towards school Chen and Stevenson ; Keys et al ; Leung See Complete Table of Contents.

Homework: The Evidence – Susan Hallam, Lynne Rogers – Google Books

More commonly pupils said that they found it easier to concentrate with music in the background either because it shut out other distractions or “built a wall of sound behind which they were able to retreat”. These findings may simply indicate that pupils who like a particular subject spend more time doing homework for that subject.


Higher Education and Lifelong Learning. Hong and Milgram found that US secondary students preferred more informal conditions for homework including music, refreshments, learning susam adults present and auditory learning, while students in Korea preferred more formal conditions.

homework the evidence by susan hallam

What is the evidence for the effectiveness of homework? The other variable related to students who reported watching television while doing homework.

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Get to Know Us. The amount and type of homework set for pupils of different abilities almost certainly depends on the way that they are grouped within school. Warton demonstrated that older pupils held more negative attitudes towards homework and gave different reasons for doing it hwllam Cooper et al found that when greater amounts of homework were assigned by teachers they were associated with negative attitudes to homework among younger children aged homeork not older secondary students.

homework the evidence by susan hallam

Teachers can only encourage students to be self-aware of the environmental and self-states which most support their learning and to attempt to ensure that that they are optimal when homework is being completed.

In part, this may be because most people are unaware of it. Early Years and Primary Education. Where classes are mixed ability the homework that is set is likely to be similar for all pupils. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. Differences in study strategies themselves were not related to achievement.