The central lesson of this body of research is that homework is not a strategy that works for all children. Some researchers argue that the relationship between time spent on homework and academic achievement is weaker for students in elementary grades than for older students Cooper and Valentine ; Cooper a. Although not explicitly linked to achievement, it is logical to assume that these factors lead to improved achievement. Heavy homework loads should not be used as a main strategy for improving home-school relations or student achievement. Homework can be further classified by level of interaction, or the social context in which it is completed; that is, independently, by a group of students, or with help from a parent, sibling, or other individual Cooper a. Over the past years, the public’s support for homework has waxed and waned on a fairly regular cycle.
The amount of homework provided to younger students may therefore be less important than simply assigning something to help them establish routines and learn personal responsibility. The amount of homework increases as students age. In addition, students who were assigned interactive homework also returned more homework assignments than students who were assigned noninteractive homework. Throughout the s and s, the majority of adults supported and endorsed homework for its character-building and academic benefits. Because of its possible negative effects of decreasing students’ motivation and interest, thereby indirectly impairing performance, homework should be assigned judiciously and moderately.
Project MUSE – Meanings of Homework and Implications for Practice
What research says about the value of homework: Interestingly, student achievement was lower in countries where homework counted toward grades, where it was the basis of classroom discussion, and where students corrected homework in class.
Results from a rigorous three-year study of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers program, which mandates programs to provide out-of-school-time enrichment, remediation, and homework assistance in reading, math, and other subjects, did not find any connection between providing structured time for homework completion and academic performance James-Burdumy, Dynarski, Moore, Deke, Mansfield, Pistorino, and Warner Homework also has potentially negative associations, one involving students’ economic status.
Parents worry that their children have too little homework couttts too much—and teachers get criticized for both. For example, Dufresne and Kobasigawa examined home study time among students in grades one, three, five, and seven and the students’ responses to test items asking himework to pair words associated with each other.
For instance, monitoring such homework habits as notebook organization was found to be a potentially effective method for “improving the completion rates and accuracy of homework assignments for students with learning disabilities” Cooper and Homeqork Cooper and Nye conducted an extensive examination of the literature on homework and students with learning disabilities. Cooper a argues that reviews on the link between homework and achievement often directly contradict one another and are so different in design that the findings of one study cannot be evaluated fairly against the findings of others.
However, these types of homework are often studied independently. Other researchers claim that homework helps students develop responsibility and life skills and the ability to manage tasks and that it provides experiential learning, increased motivation, opportunities to learn to cope with difficulties and distractions, and academic benefits Corno and Xu ; Coutts ; Xu and Corno homewor Because the research on homework is mixed, teachers should think carefully about what tasks they assign for homework, and what the purpose of that homework truly is.
Results from a rigorous three-year study of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers program, which mandates programs to provide out-of-school-time homeqork, remediation, and homework assistance in reading, math, and other subjects, did not find any connection between providing structured time for homework completion and academic performance James-Burdumy, Dynarski, Moore, Deke, Mansfield, Pistorino, and Warner Educational Psychologist36 3— Thus, higher income students who are high achieving gain the most from homework when compared to other high-income or high-achieving students, which begs the question of how much lower-income students—and especially low-achieving lower-income students—can benefit from homework.
The findings may be attributed to various circumstances, they say.
(DOC) What research says about the value of homework | Ali iqrash –
Does the effect of homework vary with students age? And Cooper, Robinson, and Patall note that educators claim “a long list of both positive and negative consequences of homework” 6suggesting a need for continued examination of the subject.
Cooper goes on to explain that homework has both positive and negative effects on various aspects of students’ lives. Kralovec and Buell attribute the lack of conclusive evidence to the diversity of research questions and designs used in homework research. From the end of the nineteenth century through the s, the child coitts and progressive education movements led to an attack on homework for elementary school and junior high school students.
What is the Purpose of Homework?
In fact, studies that have included longitudinal data or other checks and balances in the research design have ckutts that homework has a negative effect on achievement Cooper et al. However, it homdwork also be possible that teachers use homework in early grades to establish routines, instill a sense of responsibility, and help students learn time management, rather than for any immediate gains in achievement.
However, as mentioned earlier, homework assigned to younger students may have its main effects on nonacademic outcomes, and teachers may be assigning young students homework for noninstructional purposes.
Although homework cannot serve as an ohmework answer to raising student achievement, the literature suggests that it can have a direct effect on student learning under certain conditions and an indirect effect under other conditions.
This relationship held true across elementary, middle, and high school grade levels.
What research says about the value of homework: Research review
They caution, however, that such a finding pertains primarily to teachers who give significantly small amounts of homework but do not define “small amount. Overall, these researchers noted, “After-school programs can serve a protective function for children, particularly for those who do not have access to other structured after-school activities or homework homwwork at home” Cosden et al.
The researcher found that these assignments promoted higher levels of parent involvement than did noninteractive assignments. Skip to main content. Kralovec and Buell attribute the lack of conclusive evidence to the diversity of research questions and designs used in homework research. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.
Researchers often attribute such a discrepancy to the fact that younger students typically have shorter attention spans than older students. Structural equation modeling provides a more rigorous method of examining relationships between variables than path analysis alone Garson Theory into Practice 43 3 ,—